The half-life – 1-2 hours. The drug is well into the various organs and tissues. When administered intravenously, the blood quickly (5-10 minutes) are drug concentrations exceeding those when administered intramuscularly. Both antibiotics excreted by the kidneys, partly with bile. For repeated administrations do not cumulate.
The infectious-inflammatory equipoise side effects diseases caused by susceptible pathogens: sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media; bronchitis, pneumonia; cholangitis, cholecystitis;pyelonephritis, pyelitis, cystitis, urethritis, gonorrhea, cervicitis; infections of skin and soft tissues: erysipelas, impetigo, secondarily infected dermatitis and others.
Prevention of postoperative complications in surgical interventions (including on the background of immunodeficiency), neonatal infections (infection of the amniotic fluid, neonatal respiratory violation, requiring the application of resuscitation measures; the risk of aspiration pneumonia).
Sepsis, endocarditis, meningitis, puerperal infection.
Hypersensitivity, infectious mononucleosis, lymphatic leukemia.
Children born to mothers with hypersensitivity to penicillins. Allergic reactions in the anamnesis and / or bronchial asthma, renal failure, bleeding history, enterocolitis during treatment with antibiotics (in history).
Pregnancy and lactation
Use of the drug during pregnancy is possible only when the intended benefits to the mother outweighs the potential risk for the fetus.
If necessary, the appointment during lactation should stop breastfeeding (excreted in breast milk).
Dosing and dose
. Intramuscular and intravenous (bolus or infusion)
If necessary, these doses may be increased by 1.5-2 times.
The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease (from 5-10 days to 2-3 weeks, and chronic processes -. for several months)
for intramuscular injection vial contents were dissolved in 10 ml of water for injection.
for intravenous bolus (2-3 min) single -Dose dissolved in 10-15 ml of water for injection or 0, . 9% sodium chloride solution
for intravenous drip adults the single dose is dissolved in 100-200 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose (glucose), and introduced at a rate of 60-80 drops / min; children used as solvent 30-100 ml of 5.10% dextrose (glucose). Intravenous drug is administered 5-7 days, with subsequent transition to intramuscular administration.
Solutions used immediately after preparation.
Side effects : Allergic reactions : itching, and peeling skin, hives, skin flushing, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema, rare – fever, arthralgia, eosinophilia, erythematous and maculopapular rash, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme exudative (including Stevens-syndrome Johnson), a reaction similar to equipoise side effects serum sickness, in isolated cases, anaphylactic shock, non-allergic ampicillin rash may disappear without discontinuation of the drug. On the part of the digestive tract : bacteria overgrowth, alteration of taste, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, a moderate increase in activity of “liver” transaminases, rarely – pseudomembranous colitis. Laboratory findings : leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, hematuria, proteinuria. Local reactions : pain at the injection site, phlebitis and periflebit (intravenous); intramuscular – at the site of infiltration. Other : interstitial nephritis, nephropathy, superinfection (especially in patients with chronic diseases or low resistance of the body), vaginal candidiasis.
– manifestations of toxic effects on the central nervous system (especially in patients with renal insufficiency): headache, tremors, convulsions,
– nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, disruption of water and electrolyte balance.
Treatment: symptomatic. Displayed by hemodialysis.
Interaction with other drugs Ampicillin . . Pharmaceutical incompatible with aminoglycosides bactericidal antibiotics (including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, cycloserine, vancomycin, rifampicin) have a synergistic effect; . bacteriostatic drugs (macrolides, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, tetracyclines, sulfonamides) – antagonistic Improves the effectiveness of indirect anticoagulants (suppressing the intestinal microflora, reduces the synthesis of vitamin K and prothrombin index); estrogensoderzhaschih reduces the effectiveness of oral contraceptives, medicines metabolized which produce para-aminobenzoic acid, ethinyl estradiol (in the latter case, an increased risk of bleeding “breakthrough”). Diuretics, allopurinol, oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and other drugs that block tubular secretion increase the concentration of ampicillin in the plasma (by reducing tubular secretion). Allopurinol increases the risk of skin rash. reduces clearance and increases the toxicity of methotrexate. Oxacillin . Increases toxicity of methotrexate (competition for the tubular secretion); may require increased doses of calcium folinate (antidote to folic acid antagonists) and the longer its use.You should avoid joint use with other drugs that have hepatotoxic effects. It is not recommended to assign simultaneously with bacteriostatic antibiotics (decreased effectiveness). Drugs that block tubular secretion, increase the concentration of oxacillin in the blood.
In exchange treatment is necessary to monitor the state functions of blood, liver and kidneys.
If signs of anaphylactic shock, urgent measures should be taken to remove the patient from the state: the introduction of epinephrine (adrenaline), glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone or prednisone) and antihistamines when necessary, a equipoise side effects ventilation.
The ability of superinfection (due to growth insensitive microflora drug) requires a corresponding change in antimicrobial therapy.
patients with hypersensitivity to penicillins, possible cross allergic reaction with cephalosporin antibiotics.
when used in high doses in patients renal failure possibly toxic effects on the central nervous system. kigtropin