Definition of equipoise- antibacterial agent from the group of semi-synthetic penicillins. Oxacillin has a bactericidal effect by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. Resistant to the action of penicillinase. Active against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp. (including penicillinase-producing), Streptococcus spp, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Baccilus anthracis.; anaerobic spore-forming rod; Gram-negative cocci (Neisseria qonorrhoeae, N.meninqitidis); some actinomycetes. Not active against most Gram-negative bacteria, Rickettsia, viruses, protozoa, fungi.
The maximum concentration of drug in the blood is observed within 1-2 hours after injection and rapidly decreased to 4 o’clock. When administered parenterally in the blood reached a higher drug concentration than at intake. In pleural fluids found in the drug concentration reaching 10%, and synovial fluid ascitic 50%, bile – 5.8% relative to its concentration in the blood serum. The antibiotic does not penetrate the intact blood-brain barrier. More than 40% of the drug after intramuscular administration is rapidly excreted in the urine. Oxacillin is also excreted in the bile.
Oxacillin is used for infections caused by resistant to benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin staphylococci (septicemia, pneumonia, empyema, abscesses, cellulitis, cholecystitis, pyelitis, cystitis, osteomyelitis, postoperative wound infections, infected burns, etc.). The drug is prescribed as in mixed infections, which are both sensitive and resistant Gram-positive microorganisms benzylpenicillin.
It is inappropriate to use oxacillin with infections caused by susceptible staphylococci to benzylpenicillin.
Dosing and Administration
Oxacillin is used definition of equipoise intramuscularly or intravenously.
For parenteral administration, the daily dose for adults is 2-4 g, for children newborn and premature – 20-40 mg / kg.
Up to 3 months – 60-80 mg / kg,
3 months aged 2 – 1 g,
from 2 to 6 years – 2 g
over 6 years -. adult dose
in preparing solutions for intramuscular injections into the vial with 0.25 g of sodium salt of oxacillin poured 1.5 ml and 0.5 r -. 3 ml of water for injection
in preparing solutions intended for intravenous injection jet, 0.25-0.5 g product is dissolved in 5 ml of water for injection or isotonic sodium chloride solution, and slowly administered over 5-10 minutes.
for oxacillin drip is dissolved in isotonic sodium chloride or 5% glucose solution to a concentration of 0.5-2 mg / mL, and is administered for 1-2 hours at a rate of 60-100 drops per minute.
The duration of treatment is typically 7-10 days . In severe forms of diseases (septicemia, endocarditis and septic al.) Treatment may last 2-3 weeks or longer.
When administered oxacillin possible allergic reactions. In these cases, antibiotic cancel and spend desensitizing therapy. When intravenous oxacillin sodium salt of possible definition of equipoise development of thrombophlebitis, ingestion may be gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).